If a transmission is shifting too early or too late, it may require an adjustment. Many problems that seem to be transmission problems disappear after a tune-up or engine performance related repair was completed.
There are several problems that can be resolved with an adjustment (A simple adjustment is one that can be made without removing the transmission from the vehicle.)
If a transmission is shifting too early or too late, it may require an adjustment to the throttle cable. Since throttle cables rarely go out of adjustment on their own or due to wear and tear, these mis-adjustments are usually due to other repair work or damage from an accident. If the vehicle has a vacuum modulator instead of a throttle cable, there is an adjustment that can be made using an adjustment screw in some modulator designs. In vehicles with modulators, however, it is very important that there are no vacuum leaks and the engine is running at peak efficiency. Engine vacuum is very sensitive to how well the engine is running. In fact, many technicians use a vacuum gauge to diagnose performance problems and state-of-tune. Many problems that seem to be transmission problems disappear after a tune-up or engine performance related repair was completed.
In some transmissions, bands can be adjusted to resolve "slipping" conditions. Slipping is when an engine races briefly when the transmission shifts from one gear to the next. There are no adjustments for clutch packs however.
A transmission is resealed in order to repair external transmission fluid leaks. If you see spots of red oil on the ground under the car, your transmission may be a candidate for a reseal job. In order to check a transmission for leaks, a technician will put the car on a lift and examine the unit for signs of oil leaks. If a leak is spotted at any of the external seals or gaskets and the transmission otherwise performs well, the technician will most likely recommend that the transmission be resealed. Most of the external seals can be replaced while the transmission is still in the car but, if the front seal must be replaced, the transmission must first be removed from the vehicle in order to gain access to it, making it a much costlier job.
There are a number of parts that are accessible without requiring the removal of the complete transmission. many of the control parts including most of the electrical parts are serviceable by simply removing the oil pan. The parts that are accessible, however, vary from transmission to transmission and most transmission repair facilities would hesitate to provide meaningful warrantees on external repairs for the simple reason that they cannot see if there are any additional internal problems in the components that are only accessible by transmission removal.
In a complete overhaul (also known as rebuilding a transmission), the transmission is removed from the vehicle and completely disassembled with the parts laid out on a workbench. Each part is inspected for wear and damage and then either cleaned in a special cleaning solution, or replaced with another part depending on its condition. Parts that have friction surfaces, such as bands and clutches are replaced as are all seals and gaskets. The torque converter is also replaced, usually with a remanufactured one. Technical service bulletins are checked to see if the auto manufacturer recommends any modifications to correct design defects that were discovered after the transmission was built. Automobile manufacturers often make upgrade kits available to transmission shops to resolve these design defects.
When a transmission requires an overhaul, there are generally two options that you may have.
The first is to remove your existing transmission and overhaul it, then put the same, newly rebuilt unit back in your car. The second option is to replace your existing unit with another unit that has already been rebuilt or remanufactured.
The second option will get you out of the shop and on your way much faster but may cause you problems down the road. The reason for this is that, in some but not all cases, a particular transmission model can have dozens of variations depending on which model car, which engine, which axle ratio, even which tire size. The problems you could experience could be as simple as a speedometer that reads too high or too low (the speedometer is usually connected by cable to a gear in the transmission output shaft.)
You may also experience incorrect shift points or even complete transmission failure because your engine may be more powerful then the one the replacement unit was originally designed for. This is not the case with all transmission models so voice your concerns with your technician. Most shops will rebuild your existing unit if you request it as long as they can afford to have a lift tied up with your car while the transmission is being rebuilt. Of course this is only important if you are sure that the transmission you have is the original one and has never previously been replaced.